The course focuses on the contemporary practices in English language teaching at the elementaryl evel. It offers the space to critique the existing classroom methodology for ELT. The theoretical perspective of the course is based on the constructivist approach to language learning as envisaged in NCF 2005, SCF 2011 and NCFTE 2016.
Issues of Teaching English at the Elementary Level
Multilingual Society- A person who has the knowledge of many languages and can efficiently use any of these languages whenever required is known as multilingual. Similarly a society where many languages are used is called as a multilingual society. It can be personal or social. In India around 200 languages are spoken by its people and each of these languages is linked to a particular culture.
Issues of Learning English in Multilingual or Multi cultural society
- 1) Issues of Medium Instruction- It has been a topic of controversy since a long time that whether English should be the medium of instruction in a multilingual society like India or not. India is having a diverse cultural background as well as diverse languages. But it is generally agreed that students have good command over their mother tongue. Different commission had given their suggestions about the medium of instruction at school stage and higher level. It has been most common decision that mother tongue should be the medium of instruction at school stage. At higher level English can be introduced as the medium of Instruction. In some states of India like Nagaland, Jammu and Kashmir, Chandigarh, and Maharastra, English is also being used as the medium of Instruction.
- 2) Level of Introduction of English- The level at which learning of English should be introduced had also been an issue of discussion. Some linguists are in favor of introduction of English only after the child has acquired sufficient proficiency in mother tongue. Introducing second language at early stage could interfere in the learning of mother tongue also.
- 3) Issue of Accent- Accent in a language is always different in the other language. The reasons for it are- English Language itself has more than one accent. The accent in mother tongue and other language already learnt by a students is different than accent in English. Problems of the accent on the syllable of a word. Dearth of Teachers having knowledge of proper English accent themselves.
The multilingual nature of India
- India is a big country with huge population.
- It is the country of world’s second largest population, which is more than 1.35 billion people.
- 22 languages are officially recognized languages and also mentioned in the constitution.
- The population is diverse in terms of geography, politics, society, religion, and language. This diversity is the root cause of multilingualism in India.
- Indian students learn one language at home, second at school or another in social environment. Each state in India has its own official language(s), which is recognized alongside Hindi and English, with some states recognizing more than one official language. For example, in the southern state of Tamil Nadu, Tamil is the official language, while in the northern state of Punjab, Punjabi is the official language.
- In addition to these official languages, India has a large number of regional and minority languages that are spoken in different parts of the country. These languages include Kannada, Malayalam, Gujarati, Oriya, Konkani, Manipuri, and many more.
- The multilingual nature of India poses both challenges and opportunities. On one hand, it can make communication and integration difficult, particularly in areas where multiple languages are spoken. On the other hand, India’s linguistic diversity provides a rich cultural tapestry, with each language having its unique history, literature, and traditions.
- The Indian government has taken several steps to promote multilingualism in the country, including introducing the Three Language Formula, which requires students to learn three languages – Hindi, English, and a regional language – during their school education. Additionally, efforts are being made to preserve and promote minority languages through initiatives such as the establishment of language academies and the translation of literature into different languages.
- In conclusion, India’s multilingual nature is a defining feature of its cultural identity. While it can pose challenges, it also provides opportunities for cultural exchange, understanding, and appreciation.
English as the language of prestige and power
1) Tool for access to knowledge- It is the tool to access knowledge all about the world. A huge amount of study materials of different fields like science, technology, health, education, religion, culture etc are written in English language. The medium of instruction In Internet is also mostly in English language, which is one of the best source of gaining knowledge…..
2) Communication-English also plays a vital role for communication purpose. Now a days the world became a global village, a large number of industries are working in India. Therefore in order to communicate with these institutions English is very necessary. As a good knowledge of English enables strong relationships with the people of different countries.
3) Link Language- It enable us to link whole world, bcz large number of countries has English as official language. Secondly it also work as a link language within India. Because India is a multilingual country and different parts of the country speaks different languages. We cannot travel Southern India without the knowledge of English language. Because in southern state of India they used English is the connecting language instead of Hindi language.
4) Source of Entertainment- A large number of Hollywood movies and other English documentaries or TV programs can be seen with the help of English language only. It also enables readers to read a number of books of foreign author’s mostly written in English.
5) International Language- Prestige and power of English can be mostly seen by its usage in all over the world means English is an international language and even countries where other languages are spoken. It is also taught as second language in India.It is also one of the six official language of the U.N.O.
The politics of teaching English in India
The teaching of English in India has been a contentious issue with a long history dating back to the colonial era. English was introduced in India during the British Raj, and it became the language of administration, law, and education. Since independence, there has been a debate on the role of English in the Indian education system and the politics of teaching English.
On the one hand, there is a view that English is a colonial legacy and has no place in India’s education system. This view argues that the use of English perpetuates a system of inequality and discrimination, where those who are proficient in English have access to better opportunities and resources, while those who are not fluent in English are at a disadvantage. Some proponents of this view advocate for the use of regional languages as the medium of instruction in schools, arguing that this will help preserve and promote India’s cultural heritage.
On the other hand, there is a view that English is a global language and is necessary for India’s economic and social progress. This view argues that English proficiency is essential for India to compete in the global market and attract foreign investment. It is also argued that English provides opportunities for social mobility, particularly for those who come from disadvantaged backgrounds.
The politics of teaching English in India is closely linked to questions of identity and nationalism. Some argue that the promotion of English in India is a sign of a neo-colonial mindset and a rejection of India’s cultural heritage. Others argue that proficiency in English is a way to assert India’s place in the global community and promote Indian culture and values.
Solution- According to the National Education Policy of 1968, the three-language formula is introduced. Which means that a third language (apart from Hindi and English), which should belong to Modern India, should be used for education in Hindi-speaking states. In the states where Hindi is not the primary language, regional languages and English, along with Hindi shall be used.
Key factors affecting second language acquisition-
1) Age– Age is considered to be one of the most important factors affecting second language acquisition. Children tend to have an easier time acquiring a second language than adults.
2)Motivation-Motivation can play a key role in second language acquisition. If a learner is highly motivated to learn a language, they are more likely to put in the effort needed to become proficient.
3)Exposure- The amount and type of exposure a learner has to the target language can also affect acquisition. The more exposure a learner has to the language, the more opportunities they have to learn and practice.
4)Input- Input refers to the language that a learner is exposed to. If the input is comprehensible and provides opportunities for interaction, learners are more likely to acquire the language.
5)Aptitude- Aptitude refers to a learner’s ability to learn a second language. Some people may have a natural talent for learning languages, while others may struggle more.
6)Learning strategies- The strategies a learner uses to learn a language can also affect acquisition. Effective strategies such as using context clues, guessing intelligently, and practicing regularly can help facilitate language learning.
7)First language- The learner’s first language can also influence second language acquisition. Languages that are similar to the target language may be easier to learn, while languages that are very different may present more challenges.
8)Cultural factors- Cultural factors such as the learner’s attitude toward the target culture and their willingness to adapt to its customs and norms can also affect language acquisition.
9)Instruction- The quality and effectiveness of language instruction can also impact second language acquisition. Effective instruction should provide opportunities for input, interaction, and practice, and should be tailored to the needs and abilities of the learners.
Teaching English as a Second Language–Developmental factors
One of the key developmental factors that affect ESL learning in India is the age of the learner. Younger learners are often more receptive to new languages, and hence, may find it easier to learn English. Additionally, the quality of education and access to resources can also impact ESL learning in India.
1)Socio-economic factors: Socio-economic factors such as social status, income, and education level can affect ESL learning in India. For example, learners from more affluent backgrounds may have better access to resources and opportunities to practice English, while learners from low-income families may face challenges in accessing these resources.
2)Psychological factors: Psychological factors such as motivation, self-esteem, and confidence can play a significant role in ESL learning. Learners who are highly motivated, have high self-esteem and confidence are more likely to succeed in learning English as a second language.
3)Cultural factors: Cultural factors such as the influence of the learner’s first language and cultural background can impact ESL learning. Learners who come from cultures where English is not widely spoken may find it more challenging to learn the language.
4)Classroom instruction: The quality of classroom instruction is also a critical factor in ESL learning. Effective teaching practices that incorporate interactive and engaging teaching methods, such as group discussions, role-playing, and problem-solving, can significantly enhance ESL learning outcomes.
5)Curriculum design: The curriculum design can also impact ESL learning in India. An effective curriculum should include a balanced focus on all four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
6)Teacher training: The quality of teacher training is another critical factor in ESL learning. Well-trained teachers can provide learners with effective instruction and help them develop the necessary language skills.
Overall, ESL learning in India is influenced by a wide range of factors, and it is important to consider these factors when designing ESL programs and teaching English as a second language.
Nature of Language
Language is a system of communication that allows people to express their thoughts, ideas, and emotions to others. It is a complex and dynamic system that is constantly evolving and changing. Some key characteristics of language include:
1) Symbolic: Language uses symbols such as words, gestures, and written characters to represent meaning.
2)Arbitrary: There is no inherent connection between a symbol and the meaning it represents. For example, there is no reason why the word “apple” should refer to the fruit.
3)Generative: Language is a productive system, which means that speakers can create an infinite number of new sentences by combining words and grammatical rules.
4)Structured: Language has a set of rules for how symbols can be combined to create meaning. These rules include syntax, grammar, and semantics.
5)Cultural: Language is shaped by cultural factors such as history, geography, and social norms. Different cultures have different languages, dialects, and accents.
6)Dynamic: Language is constantly changing and evolving over time. New words and expressions are added, while others fall out of use.
Learning vs. Acquisition
Language acquisition and language learning are two distinct approaches to acquiring a second language. While they are often used interchangeably, they have different connotations and refer to different processes.
Language acquisition refers to the natural way in which children learn their first language. It is a subconscious process in which the child picks up the language through exposure and interaction with other speakers. This process is thought to be driven by innate language abilities that are present in all humans. Language acquisition is a gradual, subconscious process that occurs over an extended period, often spanning several years.
Language learning, on the other hand, is a conscious and deliberate process in which the learner actively attempts to acquire the language through study, instruction, and practice. This process requires explicit teaching and learning of vocabulary, grammar rules, and other language components. Language learning can be done in a classroom setting or through self-study, and it usually involves formal instruction.
Approach to Teaching of English and the Shift Approaches
Skill Based Approach
It is a methodology centered on the development of a skill set over career, it is a progression in four stages, planning, building, presenting, and validating. Each stage has proposed ways to achieve its objectives. The beauty of a skill based approach is its simplicity and flexibility.
Knowledge based approach
Knowledge based approach– The knowledge-based approach is a teaching method that emphasizes the importance of knowledge in language learning. This approach focuses on the role of knowledge in language comprehension and production, and aims to build learners’ understanding of the underlying principles of language.
In the knowledge-based approach, learners are encouraged to focus on the meaning of the language they are learning, rather than just the form or surface structure. The knowledge-based approach emphasizes the importance of explicit instruction, and encourages learners to actively engage in the learning process. The knowledge-based approach has been shown to be effective in improving learners’ understanding and use of language.
The fragmentary holistic treatment of language
- The fragmentary holistic treatment of language in terms of discourses refers to the idea that language can be analyzed and understood at both a micro and macro level. At a micro-level, language can be studied as individual words and grammatical structures, while at a macro-level, language can be analyzed as part of larger communicative practices or “discourses”.
- In the fragmentary approach, language is broken down into its individual components, such as phonemes, morphemes, and syntax, and these components are analyzed in isolation. This approach is useful for understanding the structure and rules of language, but it does not take into account the broader context in which language is used.
- In contrast, the holistic approach focuses on language as a whole, recognizing that language is embedded in social and cultural contexts. This approach views language as part of larger discourses, which are social practices that involve the use of language to achieve specific social or cultural goals.
- These discourses may include-language in terms of discourses, the holistic approach recognizes that language is not just a set of isolated components, but is intimately connected to social and cultural practices. It emphasizes the importance of context in shaping the meaning and use of language, and encourages learners to develop an understanding of the social and cultural factors that influence communication.
A teacher-centered approach
A teacher-centered approach, also known as a traditional approach, is a teaching method in which the teacher is the primary focus of the lesson. In this approach, the teacher takes on the role of the authority figure, and is responsible for delivering the content of the lesson to the students.
In a teacher-centered approach, the teacher typically delivers lectures or presentations, and the students are expected to listen, take notes, and absorb the information. The teacher is seen as the source of knowledge, and the students are expected to follow their lead. This approach places a strong emphasis on rote memorization and repetition.
A learner-centred approach
A learner-centred approach is a teaching method that focuses on the needs and interests of the learners. In this approach, the teacher takes on the role of a facilitator, rather than an authority figure, and creates a learning environment that encourages active participation and collaboration among learners.
In a learner-centred approach, learners are encouraged to take an active role in their own learning process. They are given opportunities to explore their interests, ask questions, and engage in activities that are relevant to their own lives. The teacher acts as a guide and mentor, providing support and guidance as needed.
The learner-centred approach places a strong emphasis on student autonomy and creativity. Learners are encouraged to work together, share ideas, and engage in critical thinking and problem-solving activities.
Behaviouristic Psychological approach
Behaviouristic Psychological approach which emphasizes scientific and objective methods of investigation. The approach is only concerned with observable stimulus response behaviors and states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment.
It is the scientific study of the fundamental structures of English language, their analysis and “the logical arrangement”. Brewington structural approach is based on the belief that in the learning of a foreign language mastery of structures is more important than acquisition vocabulary.
Basic Principle of Stuctural approach
Language is speech, not writing. Widely implemented in USA in the 1950s.
The Grammar-Translation Method
The Grammar-Translation Method is a traditional approach to teach languages. This method focuses on teaching grammar rules and vocabulary through memorization and translation exercises. It is typically used to teach classical languages like Latin and Greek, but has also been used to teach modern languages such as French, German, and Spanish. In this method, the emphasis is on learning the structure and rules of the language, rather than on communicative ability. Students are typically taught through lectures and drills, and are expected to memorize grammatical rules and vocabulary. Translation exercises are used to reinforce the learning of grammar and vocabulary, and students are expected to translate from the target language into their native language and vice versa.
The Audiolingual Method
It is a language teaching approach. This method emphasizes the teaching of listening and speaking skills, as well as the use of repetition and reinforcement to learn grammatical patterns and vocabulary. The Audiolingual Method is based on the theory that language learning is similar to the process of learning a new habit. Students are taught through a series of drills and pattern practices that reinforce the correct use of grammar and vocabulary. These drills are often presented in a controlled environment, with the teacher providing feedback and correction.
students are taught the underlying rules of the language, including its grammar, vocabulary, and syntax. These rules are presented in a logical and systematic way, with an emphasis on building understanding gradually. Teachers often use contrastive analysis, which involves comparing the structures of the target language with those of the student’s native language, to help students understand the underlying rules. One of the key features of the Structural Approach is the use of pattern drills and repetition to reinforce the learning of grammatical structures. Types- Aural and oral
- Sensorimotor Stage: From birth to around 2 years old, infants develop their understanding of the world through their senses and motor activities. They learn to coordinate their sensory perceptions and motor actions, and begin to develop object permanence (the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are not seen or heard).
- Preoperational Stage: From around 2 to 7 years old, children develop their language skills and their ability to use symbols to represent objects and ideas. They become better at mental operations, such as classifying and sorting objects, but still struggle with concrete logic and the concept of conservation (the understanding that the amount of a substance remains the same, even if its appearance changes).
- Concrete Operational Stage: From around 7 to 12 years old, children develop the ability to think logically about concrete objects and events. They begin to understand the concept of conservation and are able to classify objects based on multiple criteria.
- Formal Operational Stage: From around 12 years old onwards, children develop the ability to think abstractly and hypothetically. They become capable of systematic and logical thinking, and can reason about complex concepts and hypothetical situations.
constructivist classroom, the teacher acts as a facilitator or guide, rather than an authority figure. The teacher provides resources, guidance, and support for students to explore and discover information on their own. Students are encouraged to ask questions, make connections, and reflect on their learning, and to share their ideas and perspectives with others.
One of the key principles of constructivist approaches is that learning is a social process, and that learners benefit from collaborating and sharing their ideas with others. Group work, discussion, and collaboration are therefore important components of a constructivist classroom.
Another important principle of constructivist approaches is that learning is contextual and situated. Learners construct their understanding of the world in the context of their experiences and interactions, and therefore learning is most effective when it is connected to real-world contexts and problems.
Attitude refers to a person’s positive or negative feelings towards a particular subject or task. Positive attitudes towards learning can lead to greater engagement and motivation, while negative attitudes can lead to disinterest and disengagement.
Aptitude refers to a person’s natural ability or potential for a particular task or subject. Individuals with high aptitude in a particular area may find it easier to learn and achieve in that area, while those with lower aptitude may struggle more. Motivation refers to a person’s drive or desire to learn and achieve.
Motivation can be intrinsic, coming from within the individual, or extrinsic, coming from external factors such as rewards or recognition. High levels of motivation can lead to greater effort and persistence in learning and achievement.
Needs refer to the basic physical, social, and emotional requirements that individuals need in order to thrive. Meeting these needs is important for creating a supportive learning environment and ensuring that learners are able to focus on their studies.
Level of aspiration
Level of aspiration refers to a person’s desired level of achievement or success. Individuals with high levels of aspiration may set challenging goals for themselves and work hard to achieve them, while those with lower levels of aspiration may be less motivated to achieve at a high level.
Communicative Language Teaching
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) places a strong emphasis on meaning and the use of language for communication, rather than just memorizing vocabulary and grammar rules. In CLT, the focus is on developing learners’ communicative competence, including their ability to use language effectively in real-life situations.
Role of Textbooks and Other Resources
Role of Textbooks and Other Resources: While textbooks and other resources are still commonly used in CLT, they are typically chosen or adapted to fit the communicative goals of the class. In CLT, materials should be authentic and relevant to the learners’ needs and interests, and should provide opportunities for meaningful communication.
Teachers may use a range of resources, including videos, podcasts, and online materials, to supplement the textbook and provide additional opportunities for communicative practice.
Focusing on Meaning
Focusing on Meaning: In CLT, the focus is on meaning rather than form, which means that learners are encouraged to communicate using the language they have, even if they make mistakes.
The emphasis is on developing communicative competence, which involves not only the ability to use language accurately, but also to use appropriate language in appropriate contexts. In CLT, learners are given opportunities to practice using the language in real-life situations through a range of activities, such as role-plays, discussions, and problem-solving tasks.
These activities are designed to be engaging and relevant to learners’ needs and interests, and to promote interaction and collaboration among learners.
Role of teachers in classroom management
- Establishing clear expectations: Teachers should clearly communicate their expectations for behavior and academic performance from the beginning of the school year. This helps to set the tone for the classroom and create a sense of structure and predictability for students.
- Developing positive relationships with students: Teachers who build positive relationships with their students are more likely to have a well-managed classroom. Students who feel valued and respected by their teachers are more likely to be engaged and motivated.
- Creating a safe and supportive learning environment: Teachers should create an environment where students feel safe to take risks and learn from their mistakes. Teachers should model positive behavior and encourage students to treat each other with respect.
- Planning engaging and challenging lessons: Teachers should plan lessons that are engaging and challenging for students. Students who are actively engaged in learning are less likely to be disruptive or off-task.
- Responding to misbehavior consistently and fairly: When students misbehave, teachers should respond consistently and fairly. This helps to reinforce expectations and establish a sense of accountability for students.
- Providing opportunities for student choice and autonomy: Teachers should provide opportunities for students to make choices about their learning, such as selecting topics for research projects or choosing how to present their work. This can help to increase student engagement and motivation.
- Being reflective and adaptable: Effective classroom management requires ongoing reflection and adaptation. Teachers should regularly reflect on their practices and be willing to make adjustments to better meet the needs of their students.
- Concept of Curriculum: A curriculum is a set of planned learning experiences that are designed to help learners achieve specific educational goals. It outlines the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students are expected to acquire, as well as the instructional methods and materials that will be used to facilitate their learning.
Understanding of Curriculum, Textbook and Transactional Strategies
Need for Curriculum
Need for Curriculum: A curriculum is necessary because it helps to ensure that learners receive a quality education that is comprehensive, consistent, and relevant.
A well-designed curriculum can help to ensure that all students have access to the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in life, regardless of their backgrounds or personal circumstances. Additionally, a curriculum can help to provide a framework for teachers to plan and deliver effective instruction, and it can help to ensure that educational resources are used efficiently.
Importance of Curriculum
- 1) Provides a roadmap for learning: A curriculum provides a roadmap that guides students and teachers on what topics to cover, what skills to develop, and what assessments to conduct. This helps to ensure that students are receiving a comprehensive and consistent education.
- 2) Ensures relevance: A curriculum helps to ensure that learning is relevant and meaningful to students. It helps to ensure that the knowledge and skills being taught are applicable to real-world situations and that students can use what they have learned in their everyday lives.
- 3) Encourages accountability: A curriculum helps to ensure that schools and teachers are held accountable for the education they provide. It provides a framework for evaluating student progress and for assessing the effectiveness of instructional practices.
- 4) Facilitates communication: A curriculum helps to facilitate communication between teachers, students, parents, and administrators. It provides a common language and a shared understanding of what is being taught and why.
- 5) Supports student learning: A well-designed curriculum supports student learning by providing clear learning objectives, engaging instructional materials, and assessments that accurately measure student progress.
- 1) Physical features of English textbooks refer to the physical attributes of the book itself, such as its size, cover design, layout, and typography. These features can influence how accessible the book is to readers, as well as how engaging and visually appealing it is.
- 2) Textual features of English textbooks include the written content of the book, such as the language, grammar, and vocabulary used. The organization and structure of the content also fall under this category. These features are crucial in helping students understand the language and its usage.
- 3) Contextual features of English textbooks refer to the context in which the language is used, including cultural, social, and historical contexts. This includes things like idioms, slang, and cultural references, which can be challenging for students to understand without context.
- 4) Conceptual features of English textbooks are related to the concepts and ideas presented in the book. These can include themes, topics, and subjects that are covered, as well as the level of difficulty and complexity of the concepts presented. Conceptual features are important in helping students develop their understanding of the language and its application in various contexts.
Mapping competencies involves aligning the skills, knowledge, and abilities required for a particular job, task, or educational program with the skills and knowledge possessed by individuals or groups of learners. The goal of mapping competencies is to identify any gaps or discrepancies between what is required and what is currently possessed, and to develop strategies to address those gaps.
Mapping the competencies of English textbooks involves aligning the content and objectives of the textbook with the academic standards and learning indicators for English Language Arts. This process helps ensure that the textbook is meeting the expectations for student learning and achievement, and can help guide instructional planning and assessment.
Reading interventions are instructional strategies or programs designed to help students improve their reading skills. 1) Repeated Reading. 2) Assisted Reading 3) QAR- Questions Answer Relationship. 3) Visualize the Text, 4) Visualization or mental imagery. 5) Interactive read aloud.
Dealing with textual exercises that focus on vocabulary, grammar, language elements, study skills, and project works typically involves a variety of instructional strategies and activities designed to help students develop their language proficiency and literacy skills. Here are some examples of how to approach each of these areas:
- Vocabulary: To help students build their vocabulary, teachers may use strategies such as direct instruction in new vocabulary words, context-based learning, and the use of graphic organizers and visual aids. Students may also benefit from using online tools and apps that help them practice and expand their vocabulary.
- Grammar: To improve students’ understanding of grammar, teachers may use a variety of instructional strategies, including explicit instruction in grammar rules, sentence diagramming, and error correction activities. It can also be helpful to incorporate grammar lessons into writing assignments, as well as to provide students with opportunities to practice their grammar skills in conversation and other oral activities.
- Language Elements: Language elements such as spelling, punctuation, and syntax are essential components of effective communication. Teachers may use activities such as dictation exercises, proofreading assignments, and sentence-building activities to help students improve their understanding and use of these elements.
- Study Skills: Effective study skills are essential for academic success, and teachers may incorporate activities such as note-taking, summarizing, and test-taking strategies into their language instruction. It can also be helpful to provide students with explicit instruction in study skills and to model effective study habits.
- Project Works: Project-based learning is a powerful way to engage students in language learning and to help them develop critical thinking, collaboration, and communication skills. Teachers may design projects that require students to research and present information, create multimedia projects, or engage in debates or discussions around language-related topics.
- Using resources beyond the textbook, such as children’s literature, newspapers, magazines, and other sources, can be a highly effective way to engage students in language learning and to help them develop their literacy skills. Here are some ways to incorporate these resources into the classroom:
Children’s Literature: Children’s books, poems, and stories can be used to teach a variety of language skills, including reading comprehension, vocabulary development, and writing skills. Teachers can incorporate literature into their lessons by using picture books to introduce new vocabulary, reading stories aloud to the class and asking comprehension questions, or having students write their own stories or poems based on the literature they’ve read.
Newspapers and Magazines
Newspapers and Magazines: Newspapers and magazines can be used to teach students about current events and to help them develop critical reading skills. Teachers can ask students to read articles and summarize them, identify main ideas and supporting details, and evaluate the credibility of sources. This can be done through group discussions, writing assignments, or oral presentations.
Songs and Music
Songs and Music: Songs and music can be a fun and engaging way to teach students new vocabulary and grammar rules, as well as to practice listening and pronunciation skills. Teachers can use songs and music to introduce new vocabulary or grammatical structures, or to help students practice their listening and pronunciation skills through activities such as sing-alongs, karaoke, or creating their own songs based on a theme or topic.
Online Resources: There are a variety of online resources available that can be used to supplement language learning, such as online dictionaries, language-learning apps, and educational websites. Teachers can incorporate these resources into their lessons by assigning online activities or exercises, or by having students use these resources to research topics or complete projects.
Remedial teaching is a method
Remedial teaching is a method of teaching that is designed to help students who are struggling academically, particularly those who are falling behind in a particular subject or skill area. Remedial teaching can be used to address a wide range of academic difficulties, including difficulties with reading, writing, math, and other subjects.
The aim of remedial teaching
The aim of remedial teaching is to provide targeted support to students who are struggling to help them catch up with their peers and develop the skills they need to succeed academically. Remedial teaching methods typically involve a combination of individualized instruction, small-group instruction, and intensive practice and review.
Some common remedial teaching methods include
Direct instruction: This involves providing explicit instruction in a particular skill or subject area, breaking down complex tasks into smaller steps, and providing guided practice and feedback.
Multisensory learning: This involves engaging multiple senses (sight, sound, touch, etc.) to enhance learning and retention. Teachers can use multisensory techniques such as hands-on activities, visual aids, and movement-based activities to help students learn more effectively.
Small-group instruction: This involves working with a small group of students who are struggling with similar academic difficulties. Small-group instruction allows teachers to provide targeted support and feedback to students, as well as opportunities for peer learning and collaboration.
Computer-assisted instruction: This involves using computer-based programs and activities to provide students with targeted instruction and practice in a particular skill area. Computer-assisted instruction can be particularly effective for students who are struggling with reading and math skills.
Planning and Material Development
Transaction plans are important for an academic session
- Transaction plans are important for an academic session because they provide a detailed road map of what will be taught and how it will be taught throughout the session. Here are some reasons why transaction plans are important:
- Provides a clear direction: Transaction plans help teachers to clarify what they want to achieve and how they will achieve it. This allows them to have a clear sense of direction and purpose in their teaching.
- Enables effective teaching: With a well-designed transaction plan, teachers can ensure that they cover all the necessary topics, skills, and concepts within a specific timeframe. This helps to ensure that the learning objectives are met effectively.
- Facilitates effective assessment: Transaction plans can help teachers to design assessments that align with the learning objectives and skills covered in the session. This helps to ensure that students are assessed on what they have learned and that the assessments are fair and valid.
- Facilitates collaboration: Transaction plans can facilitate collaboration between teachers, as they can be shared and discussed with other teachers who may be teaching the same subject or grade level. This can help to ensure consistency and alignment across different classrooms.
- Enables effective communication: Transaction plans can be shared with students and parents, providing them with a clear understanding of what will be covered in the session and how it will be covered.
This can help to facilitate effective communication between teachers, students, and parents, and can help to promote a sense of shared responsibility for learning. Overall, transaction plans are important for ensuring that teachers have a clear sense of direction and purpose in their teaching, that learning objectives are met effectively, and that assessments are fair and valid.
They also promote collaboration and effective communication, which are essential for creating a positive learning environment.
A year plan
A year plan is an important tool for teachers in planning and organizing their teaching for an entire academic year. A year plan typically includes a breakdown of the topics and skills that will be covered throughout the year, as well as a timeline for when each topic will be taught. Here are some key elements of a year plan:
- Curriculum objectives: A year plan should be aligned with the curriculum objectives for the grade level or subject area. Teachers should review the curriculum and identify the key topics and skills that need to be covered throughout the year.
- Assessment and evaluation: A year plan should include information on how students will be assessed and evaluated throughout the year. Teachers should plan assessments and evaluation activities that align with the curriculum objectives and topics covered in each unit.
- Unit plans: A year plan should include a breakdown of the different units that will be taught throughout the year. Each unit should include information on the topics that will be covered, the skills that will be developed, and the activities and assessments that will be used.
- Timeline: A year plan should include a timeline for when each unit will be taught throughout the year. The timeline should take into account any holidays or breaks, as well as any other events or activities that may impact the teaching schedule. Resources: A year plan should include a list of resources that will be used throughout the year, such as textbooks, workbooks, and other instructional materials.
A unit plan
A unit plan is a detailed outline of what will be taught in a specific unit of instruction. It typically includes information on the learning objectives, the topics and skills that will be covered, the instructional strategies and activities that will be used, and the assessment methods that will be used to measure student learning.
A teacher period plan is a detailed schedule of what will be taught in a specific class period or lesson. It typically includes information on the learning objectives, the topics and skills that will be covered, the instructional strategies and activities that will be used, and the assessment methods that will be used to measure student learning.
Teaching Learning Materials
TLM stands for Teaching Learning Materials. TLM refers to the various materials and resources that teachers use to facilitate and enhance the learning process for students. TLM can include a wide range of materials, including textbooks, videos, audio recordings, charts, diagrams, simulations, models, manipulatives, and other resources.
TLM is an essential component of effective teaching as it helps to make the learning process more engaging and interactive for students. It enables teachers to present information in a variety of ways, catering to the different learning styles and needs of students.
TLM also helps to reinforce concepts, clarify ideas, and enhance retention and comprehension of the subject matter. Designing, analyzing, and reviewing of teaching learning materials are essential components of effective teaching.
Assessment refers to the process of evaluating and measuring learning outcomes or progress towards specific educational goals. Assessment can take various forms and can be used for different purposes. Here are the four main types of assessment:
- Formative assessment: Formative assessment is an ongoing, informal process of gathering feedback on student learning during the learning process. This type of assessment is used to provide students with immediate feedback on their progress towards learning objectives, allowing for adjustments to teaching strategies to better support student learning.
- Summative assessment: Summative assessment is a formal evaluation of learning at the end of a period of instruction or course. This type of assessment is used to measure student achievement and determine whether they have met the learning objectives or standards for a particular course or program.
- Diagnostic assessment: Diagnostic assessment is used to determine students’ prior knowledge and understanding of a particular subject or concept. This type of assessment is used to identify areas where students may need additional support or instruction to meet the learning objectives.
- Ipsative assessment: Ipsative assessment is a type of self-assessment where students compare their current performance to their past performance. This type of assessment is used to help students track their progress and set goals for improvement.
Assessment tools refer to the various methods or instruments used to gather information on student learning and progress towards specific learning objectives. Here are some common tools of assessment:
- 1) Tests and exams: Tests and exams are one of the most common assessment tools used to evaluate student learning. They can be used for both formative and summative assessments and may include multiple-choice, short answer, or essay questions. Portfolios: A portfolio is a collection of a student’s work that demonstrates their learning progress over time. This can include written assignments, projects, and other evidence of their learning.
- 2) Observation: Observation involves watching and recording student behavior and performance in real-time. This can be used to assess skills such as communication, collaboration, and problem-solving.
- 3) Performance tasks: Performance tasks involve having students complete a task or project that demonstrates their understanding of a particular concept or skill. This can include presentations, experiments, simulations, and other hands-on activities. Rubrics: Rubrics are scoring guides that provide a clear set of criteria for evaluating student work. They can be used to assess written assignments, projects, and other forms of student work.
- 4) Self-assessment and peer assessment: Self-assessment and peer assessment involve students evaluating their own or each other’s work. This can be used to help students develop metacognitive skills and to provide them with feedback on their learning progress.
To record formative assessments, teachers may use a variety of methods such as:
1) Checklists: A checklist provides a simple and quick way to record observations of student behavior or performance.
2) Anecdotal notes: Anecdotal notes are brief notes that record specific observations about students’ behavior or performance.
3) Digital tools: Teachers can use digital tools such as educational apps, online quizzes, and learning management systems to record and analyze student progress.
Summative assessment is used to evaluate student learning at the end of a unit, term, or academic year. Here are some common tools and methods for recording summative assessments:
1) Standardized tests: Standardized tests are designed to measure student knowledge and skills in specific subject areas. These tests are often administered at the end of a term or academic year and can provide a standardized measure of student performance.
2) Final exams: Final exams are often used as a summative assessment tool in higher education. These exams cover the entire course content and are used to evaluate student understanding of the material.
3) Performance-based assessments: These assessments require students to demonstrate their learning through projects, presentations, or other forms of performance-based tasks.
4) Portfolios: Portfolios can be used as a summative assessment tool, allowing students to showcase their learning progress over the course of the term or academic year.
Recording:- Summative assessment results are often recorded in a student’s academic record, such as their report card or transcript. Teachers may also use electronic record-keeping tools to track student performance and progress over time.
Formative assessment grading indicators:
1) Clarity of communication: Is the message clear and easy to understand?
2) Level of engagement: Is the student actively participating and engaged in the learning process?
3) Evidence of understanding: Does the student demonstrate an understanding of the material?
4) Progress over time: Is the student showing progress over time? Use of feedback: Does the student use feedback to improve their work?
Summative assessment grading indicators:
1) Content and accuracy: Does the student demonstrate a deep understanding of the material and accurately answer the questions?
2) Organization and structure: Is the work well-organized and structured in a logical way?
3) Use of language: Is the language used appropriate for the subject area and grade level?
4) Evidence of critical thinking: Does the student demonstrate critical thinking skills, such as analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing information?
5) Use of supporting evidence: Does the student use supporting evidence to back up their arguments or claims?
Pedagogy of English SCERT D.El.Ed 3rd Semester 2023
Assam SCERT D.El.Ed, Teacher education is centered on the preparation of teachers by Teacher Education Institutions to impart knowledge to students, with an emphasis on creating a student-centered classroom. To empower teachers to become agents of change, Teacher Education Institutions should develop a curriculum that can attract talented individuals, enabling them to excel and devise alternative plans that are feasible and can be implemented.
Course Provider: Organization
Course Provider Name: SCERT Assam
Course Provider URL: https://scertassam.co.in/